发布于 2018-03-14 19:25:37 | 60 次阅读 | 评论: 0 | 来源: 网友投递

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Spring Boot

Spring Boot 项目旨在简化创建产品级的 Spring 应用和服务。你可通过它来选择不同的 Spring 平台。可创建独立的 Java 应用和 Web 应用,同时提供了命令行工具来允许 'spring scripts'.


这篇文章主要为大家详细介绍了Spring boot实现一个简单ioc的第二篇,具有一定的参考价值,感兴趣的小伙伴们可以参考一下

前言

跳过废话,直接看正文
仿照spring-boot的项目结构以及部分注解,写一个简单的ioc容器。
测试代码完成后,便正式开始这个ioc容器的开发工作。

正文

项目结构

实际上三四个类完全能搞定这个简单的ioc容器,但是出于可扩展性的考虑,还是写了不少的类。
因篇幅限制,接下来只将几个最重要的类的代码贴出来并加以说明,完整的代码请直接参考https://github.com/clayandgithub/simple-ioc

SimpleAutowired

代码


import java.lang.annotation.*;

@Target({ElementType.FIELD})
@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME)
@Documented
public @interface SimpleAutowired {
 boolean required() default true;

 String value() default ""; // this field is moved from @Qualifier to here for simplicity
}

说明

@SimpleAutowired的作用是用于注解需要自动装配的字段。
此类和spring的@Autowired的作用类似。但又有以下两个区别:
- @SimpleAutowired只能作用于类字段,而不能作用于方法(这样实现起来相对简单些,不会用到aop)
- @SimpleAutowired中包括了required(是否一定需要装配)和value(要装配的bean的名字)两个字段,实际上是将spring中的@Autowired以及Qualifier的功能简单地融合到了一起

SimpleBean

代码


import java.lang.annotation.*;

@Target({ElementType.METHOD, ElementType.ANNOTATION_TYPE})
@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME)
@Documented
public @interface SimpleBean {
 String value() default "";
}

说明

@SimpleBean作用于方法,根据方法返回值来生成一个bean,对应spring中的@Bean
用value来设置要生成的bean的名字

SimpleComponent

代码


import java.lang.annotation.*;

@Target({ElementType.METHOD, ElementType.ANNOTATION_TYPE})
@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME)
@Documented
public @interface SimpleBean {
 String value() default "";
}

说明

@SimpleComponent作用于类,ioc容器会为每一个拥有@SimpleComponent的类生成一个bean,对应spring中的@Component。特殊说明,为了简单起见,@SimpleComponent注解的类必须拥有一个无参构造函数,否则无法生成该类的实例,这个在之后的SimpleAppliationContext中的processSingleClass方法中会有说明。

SimpleIocBootApplication

代码


import java.lang.annotation.*;

@Target({ElementType.TYPE})
@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME)
@Documented
public @interface SimpleIocBootApplication {
 String[] basePackages() default {};
}

说明

@SimpleIocBootApplication作用于应用的入口类。
这个启动模式是照搬了spring-boot的启动模式,将启动任务委托给SimpleIocApplication来完成。ioc容器将根据注解@SimpleIocBootApplication的相关配置自动扫描相应的package,生成beans并完成自动装配。(如果没有配置,默认扫描入口类(测试程序中的SampleApplication)所在的package及其子package)

以上就是这个ioc容器所提供的所有注解,接下来讲解ioc容器的扫描和装配过程的实现。

SimpleIocApplication

代码


import com.clayoverwind.simpleioc.context.*;
import com.clayoverwind.simpleioc.util.LogUtil;

import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.logging.Logger;


public class SimpleIocApplication {
 private Class<?> applicationEntryClass;

 private ApplicationContext applicationContext;

 private final Logger LOGGER = LogUtil.getLogger(this.getClass());

 public SimpleIocApplication(Class<?> applicationEntryClass) {
 this.applicationEntryClass = applicationEntryClass;
 }

 public static void run(Class<?> applicationEntryClass, String[] args) {
 new SimpleIocApplication(applicationEntryClass).run(args);
 }

 public void run(String[] args) {
 LOGGER.info("start running......");

 // create application context and application initializer
 applicationContext = createSimpleApplicationContext();
 ApplicationContextInitializer initializer = createSimpleApplicationContextInitializer(applicationEntryClass);

 // initialize the application context (this is where we create beans)
 initializer.initialize(applicationContext); // here maybe exist a hidden cast

 // process those special beans
 processSpecialBeans(args);

 LOGGER.info("over!");
 }

 private SimpleApplicationContextInitializer createSimpleApplicationContextInitializer(Class<?> entryClass) {
 // get base packages
 SimpleIocBootApplication annotation = entryClass.getDeclaredAnnotation(SimpleIocBootApplication.class);
 String[] basePackages = annotation.basePackages();
 if (basePackages.length == 0) {
  basePackages = new String[]{entryClass.getPackage().getName()};
 }

 // create context initializer with base packages
 return new SimpleApplicationContextInitializer(Arrays.asList(basePackages));
 }

 private SimpleApplicationContext createSimpleApplicationContext() {
 return new SimpleApplicationContext();
 }

 private void processSpecialBeans(String[] args) {
 callRegisteredRunners(args);
 }

 private void callRegisteredRunners(String[] args) {
 Map<String, SimpleIocApplicationRunner> applicationRunners = applicationContext.getBeansOfType(SimpleIocApplicationRunner.class);
 try {
  for (SimpleIocApplicationRunner applicationRunner : applicationRunners.values()) {
  applicationRunner.run(args);
  }
 } catch (Exception e) {
  throw new RuntimeException(e);
 }
 }
}

说明

前面说到应用的启动会委托SimpleIocApplication来完成,通过将应用入口类(测试程序中的SampleApplication)传入SimpleIocApplication的构造函数,构造出SimpleIocApplication的一个实例并运行run方法。在run方法中,会首先生成一个applicationContext,并调用SimpleApplicationContextInitializer来完成applicationContext的初始化(bean的扫描、装配)。然后调用processSpecialBeans来处理一些特殊的bean,如实现了SimpleIocApplicationRunner接口的bean会调用run方法来完成一些应用程序的启动任务。
这就是这个ioc容器的整个流程。

SimpleApplicationContextInitializer

代码


import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.LinkedHashSet;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Set;

public class SimpleApplicationContextInitializer implements ApplicationContextInitializer<SimpleApplicationContext> {

  private Set<String> basePackages = new LinkedHashSet<>();

  public SimpleApplicationContextInitializer(List<String> basePackages) {
    this.basePackages.addAll(basePackages);
  }

  @Override
  public void initialize(SimpleApplicationContext applicationContext) {
    try {
      applicationContext.scan(basePackages, true);
    } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
      throw new RuntimeException(e);
    } catch (IOException e) {
      throw new RuntimeException(e);
    }
    applicationContext.setStartupDate(System.currentTimeMillis());
  }
}

说明

在SimpleIocApplication的run中,会根据basePackages来构造一个SimpleApplicationContextInitializer 的实例,进而通过这个ApplicationContextInitializer来完成SimpleApplicationContext 的初始化。
在SimpleApplicationContextInitializer中, 简单地调用SimpleApplicationContext 中的scan即可完成SimpleApplicationContext的初始化任务

SimpleApplicationContext

说明:

终于到了最重要的部分了,在SimpleApplicationContext中将真正完成扫描、生成bean以及自动装配的任务。这里scan即为SimpleApplicationContext的程序入口,由SimpleApplicationContextInitializer在初始化时调用。
代码的调用逻辑简单易懂,就不多加说明了。
这里只简单列一下各个字段的含义以及几个比较关键的方法的作用。

字段

- startupDate:启动时间记录字段
- scannedPackages:已经扫描的包的集合,保证不重复扫描
- registeredBeans:已经完全装配好并注册好了的bean
- earlyBeans : 只是生成好了,还未装配完成的bean,用于处理循环依赖的问题
- totalBeanCount : 所有bean的计数器,在生成bean的名字时会用到其唯一性

方法

- processEarlyBeans:用于最终装配earlyBeans 中的bean,若装配成功,则将bean移至registeredBeans,否则报错
- scan : 扫描并处理传入的package集合
- processSingleClass:处理单个类,尝试生成该类的bean并进行装配(前提是此类有@SimpleComponent注解)
- createBeansByMethodsOfClass : 顾名思义,根据那些被@Bean注解的方法来生成bean
- autowireFields:尝试装配某个bean,lastChance代表是否在装配失败是报错(在第一次装配时,此值为false,在装配失败后会将bean移至earlyBeans,在第二次装配时,此值为true,实际上就是在装配earlyBeans中的bean,因此若仍然装配失败,就会报错)。在这个方法中,装配相应的bean时会从registeredBeans以及earlyBeans中去寻找符合条件的bean,只要找到,不管是来自哪里,都算装配成功。

代码


import com.clayoverwind.simpleioc.context.annotation.SimpleAutowired;
import com.clayoverwind.simpleioc.context.annotation.SimpleBean;
import com.clayoverwind.simpleioc.context.annotation.SimpleComponent;
import com.clayoverwind.simpleioc.context.factory.Bean;
import com.clayoverwind.simpleioc.util.ClassUtil;
import com.clayoverwind.simpleioc.util.ConcurrentHashSet;
import com.clayoverwind.simpleioc.util.LogUtil;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.lang.annotation.Annotation;
import java.lang.reflect.Field;
import java.lang.reflect.InvocationTargetException;
import java.lang.reflect.Method;
import java.util.*;
import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentHashMap;
import java.util.concurrent.atomic.AtomicLong;
import java.util.logging.Logger;

/**
 * @author clayoverwind
 * @E-mail clayanddev@163.com
 * @version 2017/4/5
 */

public class SimpleApplicationContext implements ApplicationContext {

 private long startupDate;

 private Set<String> scannedPackages = new ConcurrentHashSet<>();

 private Map<String, Bean> registeredBeans = new ConcurrentHashMap<>();

 private Map<String, Bean> earlyBeans = new ConcurrentHashMap<>();

 private final Logger LOGGER = LogUtil.getLogger(this.getClass());

 AtomicLong totalBeanCount = new AtomicLong(0L);

 AtomicLong nameConflictCount = new AtomicLong(0L);

 @Override
 public Object getBean(String name) {
 return registeredBeans.get(name);
 }

 @Override
 public <T> T getBean(String name, Class<T> type) {
 Bean bean = (Bean)getBean(name);
 return bean == null ? null : (type.isAssignableFrom(bean.getClazz()) ? type.cast(bean.getObject()) : null);
 }

 @Override
 public <T> T getBean(Class<T> type) {
 Map<String, T> map = getBeansOfType(type);
 return map.isEmpty() ? null : type.cast(map.values().toArray()[0]);
 }

 @Override
 public boolean containsBean(String name) {
 return getBean(name) != null;
 }

 @Override
 public <T> Map<String, T> getBeansOfType(Class<T> type) {
 Map<String, T> res = new HashMap<>();
 registeredBeans.entrySet().stream().filter(entry -> type.isAssignableFrom(entry.getValue().getClazz())).forEach(entry -> res.put(entry.getKey(), type.cast(entry.getValue().getObject())));
 return res;
 }

 @Override
 public void setStartupDate(long startupDate) {
 this.startupDate = startupDate;
 }

 @Override
 public long getStartupDate() {
 return startupDate;
 }

 /**
 * try to autowire those beans in earlyBeans
 * if succeed, remove it from earlyBeans and put it into registeredBeans
 * otherwise ,throw a RuntimeException(in autowireFields)
 */
 private synchronized void processEarlyBeans() {
 for (Map.Entry<String, Bean> entry : earlyBeans.entrySet()) {
  Bean myBean = entry.getValue();
  try {
  if (autowireFields(myBean.getObject(), myBean.getClazz(), true)) {
   registeredBeans.put(entry.getKey(), myBean);
   earlyBeans.remove(entry.getKey());
  }
  } catch (IllegalAccessException e) {
  throw new RuntimeException(e);
  }
 }
 }

 /**
 * scan base packages and create beans
 * @param basePackages
 * @param recursively
 * @throws ClassNotFoundException
 */
 public void scan(Set<String> basePackages, boolean recursively) throws ClassNotFoundException, IOException {
 LOGGER.info("start scanning......");

 ClassLoader classLoader = Thread.currentThread().getContextClassLoader();

 // get all classes who haven't been registered
 Set<Class<?>> classes = new LinkedHashSet<>();
 for (String packageName : basePackages) {
  if (scannedPackages.add(packageName)) {
  classes.addAll(ClassUtil.getClassesByPackageName(classLoader, packageName, recursively));
  }
 }

 // autowire or create bean for each class
 classes.forEach(this::processSingleClass);

 processEarlyBeans();

 LOGGER.info("scan over!");
 }

 /**
 * try to create a bean for certain class, put it into registeredBeans if success, otherwise put it into earlyBeans
 * @param clazz
 */
 private void processSingleClass(Class<?> clazz) {
 LOGGER.info(String.format("processSingleClass [%s] ...", clazz.getName()));

 Annotation[] annotations = clazz.getDeclaredAnnotations();
 for (Annotation annotation : annotations) {
  if (annotation instanceof SimpleComponent) {
  Object instance;
  try {
   instance = clazz.newInstance();
  } catch (InstantiationException e) {
   throw new RuntimeException(e);
  } catch (IllegalAccessException e) {
   throw new RuntimeException(e);
  }

  long beanId = totalBeanCount.getAndIncrement();
  SimpleComponent component = (SimpleComponent) annotation;
  String beanName = component.value();
  if (beanName.isEmpty()) {
   beanName = getUniqueBeanNameByClassAndBeanId(clazz, beanId);
  }

  try {
   if (autowireFields(instance, clazz, false)) {
   registeredBeans.put(beanName, new Bean(instance, clazz));
   } else {
   earlyBeans.put(beanName, new Bean(instance, clazz));
   }
  } catch (IllegalAccessException e) {
   throw new RuntimeException(e);
  }

  try {
   createBeansByMethodsOfClass(instance, clazz);
  } catch (InvocationTargetException e) {
   throw new RuntimeException(e);
  } catch (IllegalAccessException e) {
   throw new RuntimeException(e);
  }
  }
 }
 }

 private void createBeansByMethodsOfClass(Object instance, Class<?> clazz) throws InvocationTargetException, IllegalAccessException {
 List<Method> methods = getMethodsWithAnnotation(clazz, SimpleBean.class);
 for (Method method : methods) {
  method.setAccessible(true);
  Object methodBean = method.invoke(instance);
  long beanId = totalBeanCount.getAndIncrement();
  Class<?> methodBeanClass = methodBean.getClass();

  //bean name
  SimpleBean simpleBean = method.getAnnotation(SimpleBean.class);
  String beanName = simpleBean.value();
  if (beanName.isEmpty()) {
  beanName = getUniqueBeanNameByClassAndBeanId(clazz, beanId);
  }

  // register bean
  registeredBeans.put(beanName, new Bean(methodBean, methodBeanClass));
 }
 }

 private List<Method> getMethodsWithAnnotation(Class<?> clazz, Class<?> annotationClass) {
 List<Method> res = new LinkedList<>();
 Method[] methods = clazz.getDeclaredMethods();
 for (Method method : methods) {
  Annotation[] annotations = method.getAnnotations();
  for (Annotation annotation : annotations) {
  if (annotation.annotationType() == annotationClass) {
   res.add(method);
   break;
  }
  }
 }
 return res;
 }


 /**
 * try autowire all fields of a certain instance
 * @param instance
 * @param clazz
 * @param lastChance
 * @return true if success, otherwise return false or throw a exception if this is the lastChance
 * @throws IllegalAccessException
 */
 private boolean autowireFields(Object instance, Class<?> clazz, boolean lastChance) throws IllegalAccessException {
 Field[] fields = clazz.getDeclaredFields();
 for (Field field : fields) {
  Annotation[] annotations = field.getAnnotations();
  for (Annotation annotation : annotations) {
  if (annotation instanceof SimpleAutowired) {
   SimpleAutowired autowired = (SimpleAutowired) annotation;
   String beanName = autowired.value();
   Bean bean = getSimpleBeanByNameOrType(beanName, field.getType(), true);
   if (bean == null) {
   if (lastChance) {
    if (!autowired.required()) {
    break;
    }
    throw new RuntimeException(String.format("Failed in autowireFields : [%s].[%s]", clazz.getName(), field.getName()));
   } else {
    return false;
   }
   }
   field.setAccessible(true);
   field.set(instance, bean.getObject());
  }
  }
 }
 return true;
 }

 /**
 * only used in autowireFields
 * @param beanName
 * @param type
 * @param allowEarlyBean
 * @return
 */
 private Bean getSimpleBeanByNameOrType(String beanName, Class<?> type, boolean allowEarlyBean) {
 // 1. by name
 Bean res = registeredBeans.get(beanName);
 if (res == null && allowEarlyBean) {
  res = earlyBeans.get(beanName);
 }

 // 2. by type
 if (type != null) {
  if (res == null) {
  res = getSimpleBeanByType(type, registeredBeans);
  }
  if (res == null && allowEarlyBean) {
  res = getSimpleBeanByType(type, earlyBeans);
  }
 }

 return res;
 }

 /**
 * search bean by type in certain beans map
 * @param type
 * @param beansMap
 * @return
 */
 private Bean getSimpleBeanByType(Class<?> type, Map<String, Bean> beansMap) {
 List<Bean> beans = new LinkedList<>();
 beansMap.entrySet().stream().filter(entry -> type.isAssignableFrom(entry.getValue().getClazz())).forEach(entry -> beans.add(entry.getValue()));
 if (beans.size() > 1) {
  throw new RuntimeException(String.format("Autowire by type, but more than one instance of type [%s] is founded!", beans.get(0).getClazz().getName()));
 }
 return beans.isEmpty() ? null : beans.get(0);
 }

 private String getUniqueBeanNameByClassAndBeanId(Class<?> clazz, long beanId) {
 String beanName = clazz.getName() + "_" + beanId;
 while (registeredBeans.containsKey(beanName) || earlyBeans.containsKey(beanName)) {
  beanName = clazz.getName() + "_" + beanId + "_" + nameConflictCount.getAndIncrement();
 }
 return beanName;
 }
}

后记

至此,一个简单的ioc容器就完成了,总结一下优缺点。

优点:

小而简单。
可以使用@SimpleBean、@SimpleComponent以及@SimpleAutowired 来完成一些简单但常用的依赖注入任务.

缺点:

很明显,实现过于简单,提供的功能太少。
如果你想了解ioc的实现原理,或者你想要开发一个小型个人项目但又嫌spring过于庞大,这个简单的ioc容器或许可以帮到你。

如果你想做的不仅如此,那么你应该将目光转向spring-boot

完整代码参考:https://github.com/clayandgithub/simple-ioc

以上就是本文的全部内容,希望对大家的学习有所帮助,也希望大家多多支持PHPERZ。



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