发布于 2018-03-10 07:55:03 | 85 次阅读 | 评论: 0 | 来源: 网友投递

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Spring Framework 开源j2ee框架

Spring是什么呢?首先它是一个开源的项目,而且目前非常活跃;它是一个基于IOC和AOP的构架多层j2ee系统的框架,但它不强迫你必须在每一层 中必须使用Spring,因为它模块化的很好,允许你根据自己的需要选择使用它的某一个模块;它实现了很优雅的MVC,对不同的数据访问技术提供了统一的接口,采用IOC使得可以很容易的实现bean的装配,提供了简洁的AOP并据此实现Transcation Managment,等等


本篇文章主要介绍了使用Maven搭建SpringMVC项目的步骤(图文教程),非常具有实用价值,需要的朋友可以参考下

约定电脑都安装了eclipse,且已配置好Maven以及eclipse插件。

  1.Eclipse

  2.maven

  3.Eclipse 需要安装maven插件。url:maven - http://download.eclipse.org/technology/m2e/releases

1、新建一个Maven Project

 2、选择工作空间

 3、搭建Web工程,我们选择maven-archetype-webapp类型

 4、填写项目参数,如图

 5、以上步骤完成时的工程结构目录

 6、可以查看或修改发布目录

 7、确保勾选上Dynamic Web Module和Java

 8、完成以上步骤,我们的工程就是一个Web项目了,接着我们赋予工程的springmvc特性,配置web.xml,使其具有springmvc特性,主要配置两处,一个是ContextLoaderListener,一个是DispatcherServlet。代码如下:


<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<web-app version="2.5" xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee"
  xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
  xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee 
  http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_2_5.xsd">
  
  <!-- 配置web.xml,使其具有springmvc特性,主要配置两处,一个是ContextLoaderListener,一个是DispatcherServlet -->
  
  <context-param>
    <param-name>contextConfigLocation</param-name>
    <param-value>classpath*:applicationContext.xml</param-value>
  </context-param>
  <!-- 配置ContextLoaderListener表示,该工程要以spring的方式启动。启动时会默认在/WEB-INF目录下查找applicationContext.xml
作为spring容器的配置文件,该文件里可以初始化一些bean -->
  <listener>
    <listener-class>org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener</listener-class>
  </listener>
  
  <!-- 字符集过滤器 --> 
  <filter>
    <filter-name>encodingFilter</filter-name>
    <filter-class>org.springframework.web.filter.CharacterEncodingFilter</filter-class>
    <init-param>
      <param-name>encoding</param-name>
      <param-value>UTF-8</param-value>
    </init-param>
  </filter>
  <filter-mapping>
    <filter-name>encodingFilter</filter-name>
    <url-pattern>/*</url-pattern>
  </filter-mapping>
  
  <!-- spring mvc 配置 -->
  <!-- 配置DispatcherServlet表示,该工程将采用springmvc的方式。启动时也会默认在/WEB-INF目录下查找XXX-servlet.xml作为配置文件,
    XXX就是DispatcherServlet的名字,该文件中将配置两项重要的mvc特性:HandlerMapping,负责为DispatcherServlet这个前端控制器的请求查找Controller;
    ViewResolver,负责为DispatcherServlet查找ModelAndView的视图解析器。
    此处使用指定的配置文件spring-mvc.xml -->
  <servlet>
    <servlet-name>contacts</servlet-name>
    <servlet-class>org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet</servlet-class>
    <init-param> 
      <param-name>contextConfigLocation</param-name> 
      <!--<param-value>/WEB-INF/classes/spring-mvc-servlet.xml</param-value>-->
      <param-value>classpath*:/spring-mvc.xml</param-value>
    </init-param> 
    <load-on-startup>1</load-on-startup> 
  </servlet>
  <servlet-mapping>
    <servlet-name>contacts</servlet-name>
    <url-pattern>*.htm</url-pattern>
  </servlet-mapping>
  
  <welcome-file-list> 
    <welcome-file>index.jsp</welcome-file> 
  </welcome-file-list> 
</web-app>

9、配置ContextLoaderListener表示,该工程要以spring的方式启动。启动时会默认在/WEB-INF目录下查找 applicationContext.xml作为spring容器的配置文件,这里可以初始化一些bean,如DataSource等。代码如下:


<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
  xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
  xmlns:p="http://www.springframework.org/schema/p" xmlns:aop="http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop"
  xmlns:tx="http://www.springframework.org/schema/tx"
  xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans-3.1.xsd
  http://www.springframework.org/schema/context http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-3.1.xsd 
  http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop/spring-aop-3.1.xsd 
  http://www.springframework.org/schema/tx http://www.springframework.org/schema/tx/spring-tx-3.1.xsd">

  <!-- bean definitions here -->
  <context:component-scan base-package="cn.jxufe" />
  
  <!-- 配置读取外部配置文件 -->
  <context:property-placeholder location="classpath:jdbc.properties" />
  <bean id="dataSource" class="org.apache.commons.dbcp.BasicDataSource"
    destroy-method="close" p:driverClassName="${jdbc.driverClassName}"
    p:url="${jdbc.url}" p:username="${jdbc.username}" p:password="${jdbc.password}" />
  <context:annotation-config /> <!-- 此行语句使得resource autowired 等四个注解可以使用 -->
  
  <!-- 实例化jdbcTemplate,同时注入数据源 -->
  <bean id="jdbcTemplate" class="org.springframework.jdbc.core.JdbcTemplate"
    p:dataSource-ref="dataSource" />
  
  <!-- 配置事务管理器 -->
  <bean id="txManager"
    class="org.springframework.jdbc.datasource.DataSourceTransactionManager">
    <property name="dataSource" ref="dataSource" />
  </bean>
  
  <!-- 事务扫描开始(开启@Tranctional) -->
  <tx:annotation-driven transaction-manager="txManager" />

</beans>

 10、配置DispatcherServlet表示,该工程将采用springmvc的方式。启动时也会默认在/WEB-INF目录下查找XXX- servlet.xml作为配置文件,XXX就是DispatcherServlet的名字,该文件中将配置两项重要的mvc特性:ViewResolver,负责为DispatcherServlet查找ModelAndView的视图解析器。这里我们使用指定的xml配置文件spring-mvc.xml,代码如下:



<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"  
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"  
xmlns:p="http://www.springframework.org/schema/p"  
xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context" 
xmlns:mvc="http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans  http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans-3.0.xsd  
http://www.springframework.org/schema/context  http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-3.0.xsd 
http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc/spring-mvc-3.2.xsd"
default-lazy-init="true">

  <!-- 启动事务添加配置 -->
  <context:component-scan base-package="cn.jxufe"> 
    <!-- 排除扫描service标签 -->
    <context:exclude-filter type="annotation" expression="org.springframework.stereotype.Service"/>  
  </context:component-scan> 
  
  <bean class="org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.annotation.AnnotationMethodHandlerAdapter">
    <!-- 注册JASON转换器 -->
    <property name="messageConverters"> 
      <list> 
        <ref bean="mappingJacksonHttpMessageConverter"/> 
        <ref bean="utf8StringHttpMessageConverter"/>
      </list> 
    </property> 
  </bean>
  
  <bean id="mappingJacksonHttpMessageConverter" class="org.springframework.http.converter.json.MappingJacksonHttpMessageConverter"> 
    <property name="supportedMediaTypes"> 
      <list> 
        <value>text/plain;charset=UTF-8</value>
        <value>text/html;charset=UTF-8</value> 
        <value>application/json;charset=UTF-8</value>
      </list> 
    </property> 
  </bean> 
  <bean id="utf8StringHttpMessageConverter" class="org.springframework.http.converter.StringHttpMessageConverter">
    <property name="supportedMediaTypes">
      <list>
        <value>text/plain;charset=UTF-8</value>
        <value>text/html;charset=UTF-8</value>
        <value>application/json;charset=UTF-8</value>
      </list>
    </property>
  </bean>

  <bean id="viewResolver" class="org.springframework.web.servlet.view.InternalResourceViewResolver">
    <property name="viewClass" value="org.springframework.web.servlet.view.JstlView"/>
    <property name="prefix" value="/WEB-INF/pages/"/>
    <property name="suffix" value=".jsp"/>
  </bean>

  <bean class="org.springframework.web.servlet.i18n.LocaleChangeInterceptor"></bean>
 
  
  <!-- 当配置了<mvc:annotation-driven/>后,会自动加载org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.annotation.DefaultAnnotationHandlerMapping和
org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.annotation.AnnotationMethodHandlerAdapter,所以如果显示的配置则需去掉配置<mvc:annotation-driven/> -->
  <!--<mvc:annotation-driven/>-->
</beans>

11、配置pom.xml文件,让maven自动配置jar包,代码如下


<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
  xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/maven-v4_0_0.xsd">
  <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
  <groupId>cn.jxufe</groupId>
  <artifactId>SpringMVC-Maven</artifactId>
  <packaging>war</packaging>
  <version>1.0</version>
  <name>SpringMVC-Maven Maven Webapp</name>
  <url>http://maven.apache.org</url>
  <properties>
    <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
    <spring.version>3.1.2.RELEASE</spring.version>
  </properties>

  <dependencies>

    <dependency>
      <groupId>junit</groupId>
      <artifactId>junit</artifactId>
      <version>3.8.1</version>
      <scope>test</scope>
    </dependency>

    <!-- spring begin -->
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
      <artifactId>spring-webmvc</artifactId>
      <version>${spring.version}</version>
    </dependency>

    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
      <artifactId>spring-jdbc</artifactId>
      <version>${spring.version}</version>
    </dependency>

    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
      <artifactId>spring-context</artifactId>
      <version>${spring.version}</version>
    </dependency>

    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
      <artifactId>spring-aop</artifactId>
      <version>${spring.version}</version>
    </dependency>

    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
      <artifactId>spring-core</artifactId>
      <version>${spring.version}</version>
    </dependency>

    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
      <artifactId>spring-test</artifactId>
      <version>${spring.version}</version>
    </dependency>
    <!-- spring end -->

    <!-- web jar -->
    <dependency>
      <groupId>javax.servlet</groupId>
      <artifactId>javax.servlet-api</artifactId>
      <version>3.0.1</version>
      <scope>provided</scope>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>javax.servlet</groupId>
      <artifactId>jstl</artifactId>
      <version>1.1.2</version>
      <scope>provided</scope>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>javax.servlet.jsp</groupId>
      <artifactId>javax.servlet.jsp-api</artifactId>
      <version>2.3.1</version>
      <scope>provided</scope>
    </dependency>
    <!-- jackson jar -->
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.codehaus.jackson</groupId>
      <artifactId>jackson-jaxrs</artifactId>
      <version>1.9.11</version>
    </dependency>

    <!-- commons jar -->
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.apache.commons</groupId>
      <artifactId>commons-lang3</artifactId>
      <version>3.3.2</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>commons-io</groupId>
      <artifactId>commons-io</artifactId>
      <version>2.4</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.apache.commons</groupId>
      <artifactId>commons-collections4</artifactId>
      <version>4.0</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>commons-logging</groupId>
      <artifactId>commons-logging</artifactId>
      <version>1.1.3</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>commons-codec</groupId>
      <artifactId>commons-codec</artifactId>
      <version>1.8</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>commons-beanutils</groupId>
      <artifactId>commons-beanutils</artifactId>
      <version>1.8.3</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>commons-chain</groupId>
      <artifactId>commons-chain</artifactId>
      <version>1.2</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>commons-fileupload</groupId>
      <artifactId>commons-fileupload</artifactId>
      <version>1.3.1</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.apache.commons</groupId>
      <artifactId>commons-math3</artifactId>
      <version>3.3</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.apache.commons</groupId>
      <artifactId>commons-pool2</artifactId>
      <version>2.2</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.apache.commons</groupId>
      <artifactId>commons-digester3</artifactId>
      <version>3.2</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>commons-net</groupId>
      <artifactId>commons-net</artifactId>
      <version>3.3</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>commons-dbutils</groupId>
      <artifactId>commons-dbutils</artifactId>
      <version>1.5</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.apache.commons</groupId>
      <artifactId>commons-email</artifactId>
      <version>1.3.3</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>commons-dbcp</groupId>
      <artifactId>commons-dbcp</artifactId>
      <version>1.4</version>
    </dependency>

    <!-- jstl jar -->
    <dependency>
      <groupId>jstl</groupId>
      <artifactId>jstl</artifactId>
      <version>1.2</version>
    </dependency>

    <dependency>
      <groupId>taglibs</groupId>
      <artifactId>standard</artifactId>
      <version>1.1.2</version>
    </dependency>
    <!-- 日志相关 -->
    <dependency>
      <groupId>log4j</groupId>
      <artifactId>log4j</artifactId>
      <version>1.2.16</version>
    </dependency>

    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.slf4j</groupId>
      <artifactId>slf4j-api</artifactId>
      <version>1.7.5</version>
    </dependency>

    <!-- 验证码kaptcha -->
    <dependency>
      <groupId>com.google.code</groupId>
      <artifactId>kaptcha</artifactId>
      <version>2.3.0</version>
    </dependency>
    <!-- mysql -->
    <dependency>
      <groupId>mysql</groupId>
      <artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
      <version>5.1.31</version>
    </dependency>
  </dependencies>
  <build>
    <finalName>SpringMVC-Maven</finalName>
  </build>
</project>

12、完成以上步骤后,可以继续配置jdbc.properties、log4j.properties等文件。至此SpringMVC项目搭建完成,工程结构如下图:

13、代码我都会托管到GibHub上,有需要的朋友可以查看。GitHub

以上就是本文的全部内容,希望对大家的学习有所帮助,也希望大家多多支持PHPERZ。



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